Research proposal on applied linguistics

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Outline for Research Proposal

author explained that she was pressed for time and therefore was not able to include a detailed literature review in the proposal. this caveat in mind, an examination of table 3 in terms of allocation of textual space reveals move 1 and move 3 to be relatively important rhetorical components: the average textual space for move 1 (establishing a territory) across the three proposals is 46 % on average, and for move 3 (occupying the niche), 21 %. tables 4, 5 and 6 present the individual move sequence of the three proposals. besides being part of a genre system that constitutes a discipline’s culture, research proposals serve an important gate-keeping role in higher research degree admission, and by implication, entry into the academic/discourse community., by showing the “limitation” of her proposed research, the author is restating the focus of her research as well as showing her familiarity with research conventions, which might translate into a positive reading of the proposal as one coming from a scholar rhetorically and academically competent. at present (2016), applicants are required to submit a “preliminary research proposal” of 2000–5000 words. not excepting cadman (2002), there are currently no genre investigations of student-written research proposals for purposes of gaining entry into graduate programs. terms is a strategy found in p1 where all the important terms and concepts used in the proposal are defined and explained.

Outline for Research Proposal

Research degrees, Centre for Applied Linguistics

p3 emphasizes this strategy even more, by placing it in the very first sentence of the research proposal. there is again some variation across the three proposals for this move too. exploratory genre analysis of three graduate degree research proposals in applied linguisticsbin yin1email authorview orcid id profilefunctional linguistics20163:7doi: 10. while journals may not accept a paper lacking adequate citations, when it comes to research proposals for admission purposes, difficulties in accessing the latest research literature are generally “sympathetically understood” (allison 2002, 223), but the applicant is still needed to demonstrate a “reasonably good” knowledge of the research field. exploratory study investigated the rhetorical structure of three research proposals written by students who successfully sought entry into ma/phd programs in applied linguistics at a singapore university. english for academic possibilities: the research proposal as a contested site in postgraduate genre pedagogy. all three proposals make use of this strategy, thus offering grounds to postulate its obligatory presence in research proposals generally. despite the abundance of research on published academic texts (such as the research article), not much is known about research proposals written for degree admission purposes, which are identified as an occluded genre.

Applied research proposal 2012

p1 seems to set itself apart from the other two proposals in having quite a detailed methodology move, making use of five rhetorical strategies. you are interested in doing a phd in the broad areas of english language teaching, intercultural communication or discourse studies and are keen to work with internationally well-known researchers, the centre for applied linguistics could be your home. explained earlier, the importance of having a clear purpose is acknowledged by both the proposal authors and the specialist informant and is reflected textually in terms of the positioning and frequency of the outlining purposes strategy in move 3. finally, the third instrument to be applied were the field notes by its nature of beingnot only a way of reporting observation, but also a means of reflection and reaction toclassroom problems. reviewing items of previous research is a strategy used by p3 as well, though not in the initial position of the proposal. samraj (2002) suggested that the variations were due to the fact that wildlife behavior is a theoretical, disciplinary field with an established historical depth whereas conservation biology is an applied, interdisciplinary area that was still emerging. table following the models of richards & nunans observation reportmodel; “tasks for teacher education” (pearson education limited) and “teacherassistant classroom observation format” (role carried out as first stage in applied linguisticscourse, 2010). significance of proposed research is a place where the value of the proposed research is mentioned again, the first time being in move 3, strategy 2, as illustrated by (26):In the end, this research proposal will attempt to do what critical discourse analysis sets out to do… in the hope that such an attempt will work not only toward a more engaging and engaged theorizing of discourse and feminism in the country but also toward a better set of conditions and choices for those for whom all this theorizing is meant.

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prof w was from the department of english language and literature of the university and had a wealth of experience reading research proposals submitted for graduate degree applications. and analysistable 3 summarizes information on move structure, strategies and textual space allocated to each move across the three proposals. variation in rhetorical moves in grant proposals of us humanists and scientists. this exploratory study investigated three research proposals written by successful applicants to ma/phd programs in applied linguistics at a singapore-based university. published resources and the specialist informant in this study highlighted the importance of demonstrating familiarity with existing literature in the research proposal. of the proposal writers likewise mentioned that they consider getting their research purpose/objective across as the most important element in constructing a research proposal. nonetheless, our knowledge of the research proposal is still in its infancy. another important point to note is that the original model was based on ras in the disciplines of sciences and engineering, but has since been applied and adapted for different genres and disciplines, resulting in further refinements or modifications to the model.

An exploratory genre analysis of three graduate degree research

this proposal project intended to understand the effect of exposure to l2 through activitiesinside the classroom on students development and learning. experiment is where the author describes in detail the experiment designed in the research proposal. second, as revealed during the interview, the author of the proposal said she wished to foreground the sustainability of the proposed research arising from her strong interest in the topic:“…if i am not interested in it, i don’t think i will be able to do it. no longer formally obligatory, research proposals were important for applicants who applied for the competitive university research scholarship where evaluation of the applicant’s potential to conduct research became a decisive factor in the admission process. this strategy seems to feature rather prominently in terms of textual space in the two proposals that employ it: 27 and 64 % of sentence count in p1 and p3 respectively. since most applicants requested scholarship funding, the research proposal was considered a de facto requirement in their application. nonetheless, the importance of the research proposal as a means to gauge the competence of students and its gate-keeping role in selecting future players in the academic world is clear.., allison 2002) have found this rhetorical strategy to be quite visible in proposal writing.

Research Proposal and Thesis Writing: Narrative of a Recently

containing a proportionally large textual space for move 1 (establishing a territory), p3 is missing move 2 (establishing a niche), in contrast to the other two proposals. in this respect, p3 seems closer to the norm of humanities proposals than p2, in light of the observation that science disciplines, but not humanities tend to include both objectives and specific questions in their research proposals to occupy a research niche (connor 2000).., research proposals, personal essays, reference letters) to understand how they might interact and complement with each other in these relatively high-stakes situations. % of textual space for move 1 (termed territory in connor 2000) compared with another biology proposal with 16. instruments this proposal used three types of instruments to collect data: classroom open observations non-directive interviews field notes the first instrument, classroom open observations were chosen since it is a method whoseaim is usually to enable subsequent reconstruction of the lesson. strategy once again puts the proposed research in proper perspective in terms of justification, thus likely increasing the persuasive and rhetorical force of the proposal. important academic genre that has not been given due attention is the graduate degree research proposal (swales 1996). the proposals that participants provided are those that they had submitted when applying to the research programs to which they were eventually accepted.

Research proposal on applied linguistics-Research degrees, Centre for Applied Linguistics

Research Methods in Applied Linguistics for Doctoral Students

also, p3 is the shortest proposal in the data set, containing fewer than 1500 words, and it has been shown that shorter texts tend to contain proportionally more text for establishing territory (connor 2000). throughout the two examples, words such as “be” and “lie”, known as relational processes in systemic functional linguistics and which are usually used to denote incontestable truths, serve to remind the reader that topic generalizations are being made, either about the research world or about the real world. in comparison, critical discourse analysis (cda), the research area of p2 and p3, being a non-experimental field, relies more on problematizing issues in society and their reflection in discourse than in executing any experiment or defining any variables, which accounts for the lower textual emphasis given to the methodology move in these two proposals4 (p2 and p3). to provide them with a summary of the best resources in a few subfields of linguistics. p1, a proposal on educational phonology, makes use of both types of gaps. according to prof w, the communicative purpose of the research proposal in the context of admission evaluation was generally to see that the applicant was able to construct a research project relevant to the program being applied for. they constitute the two moves that take up the most space (67 %) in the three proposals. these, the present study investigated three graduate degree research proposals submitted by students applying for admission to a research degree program at a singapore-based university.

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interestingly, the author also indicated that she did not think it was important to cite relevant works in the proposal and that showing a basic understanding of the field would be sufficient5, a comment that seems to reveal some discrepancy between this student’s perceptions of research proposals and faculty’s expectations., the research proposal for graduate degree admission represented part of the older graduate degree program structure at this university which used to adhere to a british style of graduate degree education. a territory is a move in the research proposal that maps out the general research area in which the proposed research is located. the difference between p2 and p1 in the proportion of move 3 is simply due to the difference in overall length of proposals (the two proposals are comparable in the number of sentences for move 3; see table 3). following the swales tradition of genre analysis, the proposals were analyzed in terms of their rhetorical “move” structure, complemented by interviews with the proposal writers and one expert informant to elicit contextual factors such as intended readership, authorial positioning, and institutional expectations for this genre. whatwas intended with this proposal wass to get to understand (focus-on) such phenomenon asclassroom language exposure is and what it implies on either learning or acquisition of aforeign language in native speakers of spanish to who, a foreign language as frenchrepresents more than a new language to be learned, all a new and utterly world to which theywill have to adjust and that in research are specificities that; as involving sensations, emotions,attitudes (behavioral variability) are to consider the more deeply and the more unbiasedlypossible. dissertation grant proposals as ‘writing games’: an exploratory study of two l2 graduate students’ experiences. therefore, no official university documentary requirements existed at that time for the applicants to consult for writing a proposal.

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in that context, the research proposal used to be a compulsory requirement for admission into the department’s research degree programs. of the eu grant proposals in connor and mauranen (1999), research question and/or hypothesis in connor (2000), the “game-playing” metaphor in cheng (2014) and the assessment of "discourse persona" in cadman (2002). degrees in english language teaching, applied linguistics, intercultural communication, discourse studies. the schematic structure of literature reviews in doctoral theses of applied linguistics. though the topic of the proposal can be tentative, the applicant must demonstrate “seriousness and ability” through this document. the foregrounding of this strategy is very likely a generic characteristic of research proposals in that a graduate degree research proposal serves, above all, to inform future supervisors and the admission board of the research being proposed. of the three proposals, only p1 showed this move, which is not surprising since it is more relevant to experiment-based fields. research articles in applied linguistics: moving from results to conclusions.

Applied research proposal 2012

strategies 2 and 3 are only relevant to published articles and therefore, are not found in my data, consisting of research proposals with ideas about research yet to be executed. study has identified a new strategy to realize move 1 in graduate degree research proposals: stating personal interest. when pressed on this point, prof w noted that the department reviewed an application in its totality, and that other factors such as grades and reference letters might be able to make up for possible deficiencies in research proposals.., applied linguistics, kwan 2006; ozturk 2007; sports science and medicine, zeng 2009; agricultural sciences, del saz rubio 2011; management, lim 2012) have both demonstrated the usefulness of cars as a framework of rhetorical descriptions for academic texts, and shown the existence of variations in text types and disciplines (samraj 2002; ozturk 2007). nevertheless, there is a noticeable difference between p3 (with 80 % of textual space devoted to move 1) and the remaining two proposals (27 % for p1 and 32 % for p2). now turn to the fourth move identified in the proposals: establishing theoretical basis, as shown in table 3. in p2, this strategy initially occurs in the fifth sentence of the proposal. p2, a proposal on cda however, contains only an indication of a gap in research.

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in the two sections that follow, i discuss research proposals as an important, but occluded genre that forms part of the academic genre system. by explicitly stating the meanings of technical terms used in the proposed research, the author avoids unnecessary ambiguity/confusion surrounding usage of terminology, which will likely translate into a more positive evaluation of the proposal by potential supervisors or admission board members. reiterating this rhetorical content in the concluding section of the proposal represents further evidence that having a clear purpose is the fulcrum around which the whole proposal is constructed. as a genre hidden from the public, existing studies on research proposals written for graduate admission purposes are practically non-existent, although there is research on related genres, such as grant proposals written by established or junior researchers (connor and mauranen 1999; connor 2000; myers 1990; feng 2008; cheng 2014) or proposals written by existing graduate students as part of their candidature advancement requirements (cadman 2002). obligatory presence, early positioning, recursion and clear sectional signaling of the outlining purposes strategy observed in the proposals point to a rhetorical prominence assigned to this strategy. the study seeks to account for the rhetorical structure of the graduate degree research proposal in terms of its communicative purpose, institutional expectations and represented disciplinary culture. below, i discuss in more detail the two strategies of move 3 in the research proposals: outlining purposes and spelling out contribution/significance of proposed research. in addition, data from an interview conducted with an established faculty member in linguistics research (prof w) is also reported here.

however, prof w noted that the submission of a graduate degree research proposal was no longer required for application purposes, as a result of the “americanization” of the university’s curriculum. as to the difference between p2 and p3, two proposals of similar length and from the same discipline, i observe that p2 fulfills move 3, strategy 1 (outlining purposes) by not only stating the overall objective, but also in the form of two main questions and seven specific questions, thereby resulting in a substantial move 3. i have analyzed both section headings as serving the function of bringing closure to the research proposal, and discuss them together under the move labeled achieving closure. for move 3 (occupying the niche), both the faculty informant and proposal authors agreed that it is extremely important for research proposals to have clear and unambiguous research objectives and also to strengthen the statement of purpose by spelling out the significance of the proposed research (move 3), hence the relatively high proportion of textual space assigned to this move. the present study aims to fill the gap by adopting an integrative approach that combines textual and contextual analyses of student written research proposals. the textual organisation of research article introductions in applied linguistics: variability within a single discipline.., introduction), they cannot fully accommodate the rhetorical structuring of full-length research proposals. this page for all students in the department of linguistics with the.

shown in table 3, two of the three proposals (p1 and p2) utilized the niche establishing move. as noted in the paper, research proposals were not mandatory for the batch of students in this study. although the author does make some general remarks regarding the status of knowledge in the field, the effort to specify previous findings and attribute them to specific researchers was not found in this proposal. they were at varying stages of pursuing a research degree in applied linguistics at a leading singapore university where the working language is english (see table 2 for author information). as revealed by the proposal author during the interview, in this part she is actually indirectly showing her awareness of other research possibilities:“i know there are other factors that are important. on expressing interest in developing a research proposal, allison (2002, 166) notes that evidence of a researcher’s expressed interest could be “positive” in an proposal for small scale projects but he cautions that a personal interest would “not be sufficient in itself to justify admitting a student to a higher degree by research”. as a field that combines educational studies and phonetics, two areas that rely on well designed experiments to elicit research data, the writer has to present a rather detailed methodology section in the proposal to convince the reader that she does have a viable research design. informed by current understandings of genre theory which stress the relationship between text and context (swales 1990; bhatia 1993), this study combines textual analysis of research proposals (rhetorical moves) with interview data from an expert informant as well as the authors of the proposals to achieve a preliminary understanding of research proposals in applied linguistics in a specific academic setting.

the respective authors signed consent forms to take part in the research project and their proposals are coded as p1, p2 and p3 in this paper. however, research proposals written for entry into degree programs as an exemplar of occluded genres (swales 1996) have so far not been looked into, partly due to the lack of access to this type of texts., the author of p3 felt it necessary to provide a comprehensive overview of all relevant fields in the proposal, resulting in a substantial literature review section. then, i argue for the importance of examining the graduate degree research proposal as a genre.: march 16th 2011observation table following the models of “tasks for teacher education” (pearsoneducation limited) and “teacher assistant classroom observation” (role carried out as firststage in applied linguistics course, 2010). two proposals (p1 and p3) make use of this strategy (see table 3). three research proposals for this study were collected from three research students in 2006. two specialist informants were interviewed for this project, one from linguistics and the other literature, i focus on the commentary from the linguistics faculty member here, given the focus of the present paper.

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