Research proposal on brand awareness

A study to indicate the importance of brand awareness in brand choice

brand recall most current accounts of recall postulate that information in memory is accessed via retrieval cues (crowder 1976). olshavsky (1979), "task complexity and contingent processing in brand choice", journal of consumer research, 6, 154-65. the magnitude of brand familiarity effects and the processes mediating such effects have received little empirical and theoretical attention. the frequency effect research by hasher and zacks (1984) suggests another process by which brand familiarity may mediate brand preference. in this research, a greater average liking for brands occurred when attention towards the stimulus was facilitated rather than distracted. this suggests that except in the case of extremely familiar brands such as coke, overall brand familiarity mag influence recall less than context-specific considerations. (1985), "advertising generated brand evaluation: a memory based information processing perspective. this suggests that when information from advertisements are not effortfully integrated into brand memory structures, simple effects such as brand familiarity may dominate advertising-based brand evaluation, especially if there is any significant delay between the time of message exposure and brand evaluation. exposure generated familiarity significantly influenced brand preference and brand choice (becknell, wilson and baird 1963). thus, brand familiarity is the most rudimentary form of consumer knowledge. with regard to the exposure effect, the nature of the exposure-frequency function suggests that both absolute and relative effects may be difficult to achieve if the brand(s) involved in the evaluation have high brand familiarity prior to subsequent exposures (harrison 1977. it seems plausible that the perceptual processes involved in such tasks are quite similar to those involved in quickly scanning a store shelf for brands to consider. interestingly, the significant effects of brand name familiarity occurred only when (l) the accessibility of advertisement execution information and brand attribute information was at its lowest level and (2) relative brand name familiarity (brand name familiarity relative to competing brand alternatives) was at its highest level. brand familiarity, devoid of context may still play an important role in retrieval in a number of instances. in the case of brand attitude, increased exposure may not be sufficient to generate a perceivable change in affect. brand familiarity is likely to: 1) enhance perceptual identification of a brand, 2) increase the probability of inclusion in the evoked set, 3) generate positive affect toward the brand, and 4) motivate purchase behavior. these three studies are important because they demonstrate that (l) brand name familiarity is a sufficient condition to enhance brand attitudes and brand choice and (2) that these effects occur in natural settings. attitudinal versus choice effects since brand attitude formation does not require explicit interbrand comparisons, the absolute level of affect generated by brand familiarity will directly influence the level of brand liking. in consumer research volume 13, 1986      pages 637-642 brand familiarity and advertising: effects on the evoked set and brand preference william baker, university of florida j. using an advertising format, moore and hutchinson (1985), measured subjects' reactions to affective associates to the brand (e. proposition 4: brand familiarity can directly mediate choice behavior, but only when mediators which are the product of higher level information (i. in the case of brand choice, increased exposure may not create greater liking of a brand over an alternative. so, as exposure to a brand increases affective reactions to the brand become more favorable. the brand familiarity construct in order to facilitate the present discussion, we will adopt a very particular working definition of brand familiarity and examine its viability. proposition 4: brand familiarity can directly mediate choice behavior, but only when mediators which are the product of higher level information (i. below, evidence relating to marketing applications of brand familiarity is briefly reviewed. validation of brand familiarity effects in marketing contexts and the establishment of their limits are prerequisites to strategic applications. as consumers we’re aware of brands in different ways — with some brands we’re reminded of our familiarity with them upon hearing it’s name, or seeing it’s logo in store aisles. recent studies have attempted to generalize effects of brand name familiarity into decision contexts where other evaluative information is present. the product class or subcategory to which the brand belongs could serve as a retrieval cue in many instances.., brand attribute beliefs or source credibility) which require greater information processing intensity are not accessible or cannot discriminate between brand alternatives, then brand familiarity may be a viable marketing communications strategy. pages the impact of brand awareness on customer loyalty: a case study of sinapi aba savings and loans ltd. brand recognition levels are crucial in scenarios where customers are presented with a selection of products from various brands, such as at the supermarket. thus, the level of focal attention increases the strength of exposure-induced brand liking, but cognitive elaboration is inhibitory.., brand attribute beliefs or source credibility) which require greater information processing intensity are not accessible or cannot discriminate between brand alternatives, then brand familiarity may be a viable marketing communications strategy. concluding remark the thesis explored in this paper is that brand familiarity exerts important effects on brand choice. finally, brand familiarity is unlikely to exert a robust effect on consumers' brand attitudes and decisions when extensive product knowledge is available or when involvement is high. trust study: in an era of data breaches, keeping tabs on your levels of brand trust is key.

Impact of Brand Awareness, Perceived Quality and Customer

: what are the attributes of your brand that it an advantage over others? with regard to the frequency effect, perceivable between brand differences in exposure-based habituation is not the issue. advertisements which are short, but effective in generating sufficient attention to cause brand perception will operationalize this strategy at the minimum cost in advertising dollars. the primary caveat to these conclusions is that brand familiarity effects may be highly context dependent. if your brand doesn’t appear trustworthy, you will have difficulty retaining customers. hutchinson (1984), "the prototypicality of brands: relationships with brand awareness, preference and usage," in advances in consumer research, eds. below, evidence relating to marketing applications of brand familiarity is briefly reviewed. one week after exposure, however, brand name familiarity ratings were the dominant attitudinal mediator. your brand has an image, but are your brand’s attributes that you work so hard to market being reflected in the sentiments of those already aware of your brand? proposition 2: in memory-based choice situations, brand familiarity increases the probability of a brand being recalled and, therefore, facilitates inclusion in the evoked set. case (1979), "testing thirteen attitude scales for agreement and brand discrimination journal or marketing, 43, 20-32. below, evidence relating to marketing applications of brand familiarity is briefly reviewed. using an advertising format, moore and hutchinson (1985), measured subjects' reactions to affective associates to the brand (e. with regard to the exposure effect, the nature of the exposure-frequency function suggests that both absolute and relative effects may be difficult to achieve if the brand(s) involved in the evaluation have high brand familiarity prior to subsequent exposures (harrison 1977. the traditional role ascribed to brand familiarity in such instances may be summarized in the following propositions: proposition 1: in stimulus-based choice situations, brand familiarity enables quicker and easier perceptual identification of a brand and, therefore, facilitates inclusion in the evoked set. attitudinal versus choice effects since brand attitude formation does not require explicit interbrand comparisons, the absolute level of affect generated by brand familiarity will directly influence the level of brand liking. awareness measures the extent to which consumers are familiar with your brand and product. the primary caveat to these conclusions is that brand familiarity effects may be highly context dependent. specifically, perceptual identification will be impaired if cues present in the environment during purchase do not match those present during previous exposures to the brand. the magnitude of brand familiarity effects and the processes mediating such effects have received little empirical and theoretical attention. brand recognition simple item familiarity, or strength, is no longer widely accepted as an explanation of recognition in the typical list learning tasks frequently studied by psychologists (see crowder 1976, ch. so, as exposure to a brand increases affective reactions to the brand become more favorable. case (1979), "testing thirteen attitude scales for agreement and brand discrimination journal or marketing, 43, 20-32. below, evidence relating to marketing applications of brand familiarity is briefly reviewed. in many instances then, situation-specific familiarity may exert a greater influence on probability of choice than brand familiarity in general. in this research, a greater average liking for brands occurred when attention towards the stimulus was facilitated rather than distracted. first, a brand that is not considered cannot be chosen. after examining relevant literature we are led to the conclusion that brand familiarity is a viable, albeit limited, marketing tool for influencing consumer decisions. therefore, if the communication goal is facilitation of the exposure effect, then advertising should be designed to maintain focal attention towards the brand name or package without causing the consumer to negatively elaborate on the message. and, like the habituation process, it requires only sufficient attention to generate brand perception to operate. as this discussion suggests, whenever situation specific cues trigger retrieval, a general familiarity with the brand may not be as important as familiarity with the brand in that situation. finally, brand familiarity is unlikely to exert a robust effect on consumers' brand attitudes and decisions when extensive product knowledge is available or when involvement is high. in many instances then, situation-specific familiarity may exert a greater influence on probability of choice than brand familiarity in general. in the remainder of this paper we examine two principal ways in which brand familiarity might affect brand choice: (1) by increasing the likelihood that the brand is included in the evoked set, and (2) by contributing to brand preference. thus, the logogen model provides a natural theoretical basis for brand familiarity on perceptual identification. prakash nedungadi, university of toronto introduction it is a well known fact that brand awareness, or familiarity, and brand choice are highly correlated (axelrod 1968; haley and case 1979). of greater interest is the proposition that brand awareness plays some causal role in the choice process. (1985), "advertising generated brand evaluation: a memory based information processing perspective.

Resume for automotive mechanic

THE IMPACT OF BRAND AWARENESS ON CUSTOMER LOYALTY

a brand awareness study is a perfect tool to ensure that your perceived strengths and perceived weaknesses are reflected by the opinions in the market. wesley hutchinson, danny moore, and prakash nedungadi (1986) ,"brand familiarity and advertising: effects on the evoked set and brand preference", in na - advances in consumer research volume 13, eds. one week after exposure, however, brand name familiarity ratings were the dominant attitudinal mediator. as this discussion suggests, whenever situation specific cues trigger retrieval, a general familiarity with the brand may not be as important as familiarity with the brand in that situation. interestingly, the significant effects of brand name familiarity occurred only when (l) the accessibility of advertisement execution information and brand attribute information was at its lowest level and (2) relative brand name familiarity (brand name familiarity relative to competing brand alternatives) was at its highest level. in both instances, the cues available to the consumer could determine the set of brands considered for choice. specifically, perceptual identification will be impaired if cues present in the environment during purchase do not match those present during previous exposures to the brand. brand health studies are crucial to forming a complete marketing strategy, but measuring your brand's market recognition and recall is the best first step. in these cases, brand position on the frequency-affect curve may be at the asymptote. brand familiarity, devoid of context may still play an important role in retrieval in a number of instances. two days after exposure to advertisements, subjects' reactions to the ads' affective associates were the strongest mediators of brand liking. the impact of brand awareness on customer loyalty: a case study of sinapi aba savings and loans ltd. this task does not seem especially relevant for determining which brands will be included in a stimulus-based evoked set. this suggests that when information from advertisements are not effortfully integrated into brand memory structures, simple effects such as brand familiarity may dominate advertising-based brand evaluation, especially if there is any significant delay between the time of message exposure and brand evaluation. this relationship undoubtably reflects the fact that choice increases awareness, if for no reason other than people will be exposed to the brands they choose more often than brands they leave on the shelf. recent studies have attempted to generalize effects of brand name familiarity into decision contexts where other evaluative information is present. the composition of such an evoked set has important influences on subsequent probabilities of brand choice. evidence from these two experiments suggests that if meaning is conferred to the stimulus through a complex cognitive process such as attribute belief formation (lutz 1975) or simple process such as source evaluation (petty, cacioppo and schumann 1983; sternthal, dholakia and leavitt 1978; holbrook 1978), then the direct effects of brand name familiarity on evaluation will be attenuated. moderators of brand familiarity effects empirical research suggests that the duration of attention, not the number of prior exposures facilitates the exposure effect. brand recall most current accounts of recall postulate that information in memory is accessed via retrieval cues (crowder 1976). moreover, this definition specifically assumes that brand familiarity is context-independent and is affected in more or less the same way by advertising exposures, purchase behavior, and product consumption or usage. proposition 2: in memory-based choice situations, brand familiarity increases the probability of a brand being recalled and, therefore, facilitates inclusion in the evoked set. concluding remark the thesis explored in this paper is that brand familiarity exerts important effects on brand choice. specifically, perceptual identification will be impaired if cues present in the environment during purchase do not match those present during previous exposures to the brand. thus, the logogen model provides a natural theoretical basis for brand familiarity on perceptual identification. low correlations were obtained for probability of brand recall across situations, specially when the most salient or familiar brands were excluded from the analysis. goal of most brand awareness studies is to answer this one question:What percentage of my target market is aware of my brand? after examining relevant literature we are led to the conclusion that brand familiarity is a viable, albeit limited, marketing tool for influencing consumer decisions. prakash nedungadi, university of toronto introduction it is a well known fact that brand awareness, or familiarity, and brand choice are highly correlated (axelrod 1968; haley and case 1979). validation of brand familiarity effects in marketing contexts and the establishment of their limits are prerequisites to strategic applications. brand familiarity is likely to: 1) enhance perceptual identification of a brand, 2) increase the probability of inclusion in the evoked set, 3) generate positive affect toward the brand, and 4) motivate purchase behavior. the primary caveat to these conclusions is that brand familiarity effects may be highly context dependent. advertisements which are short, but effective in generating sufficient attention to cause brand perception will operationalize this strategy at the minimum cost in advertising dollars. in both instances, the cues available to the consumer could determine the set of brands considered for choice. finally, neither the moore and hutchinson (1985) nor the baker (1985) experiments provided evidence to discriminate whether the exposure effect or the frequency effect was the operative brand familiarity based process. with regard to the exposure effect, the nature of the exposure-frequency function suggests that both absolute and relative effects may be difficult to achieve if the brand(s) involved in the evaluation have high brand familiarity prior to subsequent exposures (harrison 1977. if on the other hand, prior knowledge exists and is likely to be accessed and there is sufficient decision involvement to expect cognitive elaboration in the decision process, but there is no perceived difference between brand alternatives on performance dimensions, the facilitation of the frequency effect may be a viable advertising strategy. example, you may purchase motor oil so infrequently that you’d be hard-pressed to recite the name of one brand off the top of your head.

Research Proposal | Brand

The Definitive Guide to Brand Awareness Studies

the pattern of findings strongly suggests that brand name familiarity became the dominant mediator in delay because affective reactions to the ads were forgotten. case (1979), "testing thirteen attitude scales for agreement and brand discrimination journal or marketing, 43, 20-32. hutchinson (1984), "the prototypicality of brands: relationships with brand awareness, preference and usage," in advances in consumer research, eds. prototypicality of a brand is a measure of how representative the brand is of its product category. the key point for marketers is that subjective familiarity does mediate the exposure effect (obermiller 1985; stang 1975; moreland and zajonc 1977) and that brand directed attention without elaboration will generate this subjective familiarity (obermiller 1985; greenwald and leavitt 1984). brand familiarity and preference this section of the paper will explore two processes by which brand familiarity may directly mediate choice behavior through brand preference formation. three early experiments that tested the generalizability of the exposure effect provided the first evidence that brand familiarity can directly mediate consumers' purchase decisions. recognition levels are especially important for newer companies and brands who do not yet have a solidified presence in the market. interestingly, the significant effects of brand name familiarity occurred only when (l) the accessibility of advertisement execution information and brand attribute information was at its lowest level and (2) relative brand name familiarity (brand name familiarity relative to competing brand alternatives) was at its highest level. recent studies have attempted to generalize effects of brand name familiarity into decision contexts where other evaluative information is present. thus, these experiments support the potential for brand name familiarity based marketing strategies, but they were achieved in informationally spargee decision environments. the impact of brand awareness on customer loyalty: a case study of sinapi aba savings and loans ltd. thus, brand familiarity is the most rudimentary form of consumer knowledge. byike tandoh  connect to downloadget pdf the impact of brand awareness on customer loyalty: a case study of sinapi aba savings and loans ltd. operation of the frequency effect depends only on the recognition-that one brand has been seen more than another. this suggests that except in the case of extremely familiar brands such as coke, overall brand familiarity mag influence recall less than context-specific considerations. if on the other hand, prior knowledge exists and is likely to be accessed and there is sufficient decision involvement to expect cognitive elaboration in the decision process, but there is no perceived difference between brand alternatives on performance dimensions, the facilitation of the frequency effect may be a viable advertising strategy. this affect may serve as an input to brand choice. concluding remark the thesis explored in this paper is that brand familiarity exerts important effects on brand choice. in many instances then, situation-specific familiarity may exert a greater influence on probability of choice than brand familiarity in general. thus, these experiments support the potential for brand name familiarity based marketing strategies, but they were achieved in informationally spargee decision environments. thus, the relative level of brand familiarity among brand alternatives is the critical independent variable. it is, therefore, important to examine in some detail factors that determine inclusion of a brand in the consumer's evoked set. other brands enjoy “top of mind” status, which puts them immediately at the forefront when it comes time to make a purchase. exposure generated familiarity significantly influenced brand preference and brand choice (becknell, wilson and baird 1963). thus, the logogen model provides a natural theoretical basis for brand familiarity on perceptual identification. olshavsky (1979), "task complexity and contingent processing in brand choice", journal of consumer research, 6, 154-65. evidence from these two experiments suggests that if meaning is conferred to the stimulus through a complex cognitive process such as attribute belief formation (lutz 1975) or simple process such as source evaluation (petty, cacioppo and schumann 1983; sternthal, dholakia and leavitt 1978; holbrook 1978), then the direct effects of brand name familiarity on evaluation will be attenuated. low correlations were obtained for probability of brand recall across situations, specially when the most salient or familiar brands were excluded from the analysis. the pattern of findings strongly suggests that brand name familiarity became the dominant mediator in delay because affective reactions to the ads were forgotten. except in the cases of habitual purchase behavior, however, brand choice explicitly requires interbrand comparisons. finally, neither the moore and hutchinson (1985) nor the baker (1985) experiments provided evidence to discriminate whether the exposure effect or the frequency effect was the operative brand familiarity based process. in consumer research volume 13, 1986      pages 637-642 brand familiarity and advertising: effects on the evoked set and brand preference william baker, university of florida j. further, probability of choice is a function of both the number and nature of the other brands included in the evoked set (e. moderators of brand familiarity effects empirical research suggests that the duration of attention, not the number of prior exposures facilitates the exposure effect. significant effects of brand name familiarity on purchase intention occurred, but like moore and hutchinson (1985), only after a week's delay from advertisement exposure. brand recall most current accounts of recall postulate that information in memory is accessed via retrieval cues (crowder 1976). the brand familiarity construct in order to facilitate the present discussion, we will adopt a very particular working definition of brand familiarity and examine its viability.

Science and everyday life essay

Social media as a tool of marketing and creating brand awareness

prakash nedungadi, university of toronto introduction it is a well known fact that brand awareness, or familiarity, and brand choice are highly correlated (axelrod 1968; haley and case 1979). in this research, a greater average liking for brands occurred when attention towards the stimulus was facilitated rather than distracted. the frequency effect research by hasher and zacks (1984) suggests another process by which brand familiarity may mediate brand preference. concluding remark the thesis explored in this paper is that brand familiarity exerts important effects on brand choice. as this discussion suggests, whenever situation specific cues trigger retrieval, a general familiarity with the brand may not be as important as familiarity with the brand in that situation. first, a brand that is not considered cannot be chosen. this suggests that the viability of the exposure effect as a communication goal may be limited to situations where subjective brand familiarity of the advertised brand is not on the asymptote of the frequency-affect curve. one week after exposure, however, brand name familiarity ratings were the dominant attitudinal mediator. it is, therefore, important to examine in some detail factors that determine inclusion of a brand in the consumer's evoked set. two days after exposure to advertisements, subjects' reactions to the ads' affective associates were the strongest mediators of brand liking. the pattern of findings strongly suggests that brand name familiarity became the dominant mediator in delay because affective reactions to the ads were forgotten. moreover, this definition specifically assumes that brand familiarity is context-independent and is affected in more or less the same way by advertising exposures, purchase behavior, and product consumption or usage. wesley hutchinson, danny moore, and prakash nedungadi (1986) ,"brand familiarity and advertising: effects on the evoked set and brand preference", in na - advances in consumer research volume 13, eds. on the positive side, both sets of the results also suggest that higher order effects of advertising decay much more rapidly than effects of brand familiarity. the composition of such an evoked set has important influences on subsequent probabilities of brand choice. except in the cases of habitual purchase behavior, however, brand choice explicitly requires interbrand comparisons. attitudinal versus choice effects since brand attitude formation does not require explicit interbrand comparisons, the absolute level of affect generated by brand familiarity will directly influence the level of brand liking. brand familiarity is likely to: 1) enhance perceptual identification of a brand, 2) increase the probability of inclusion in the evoked set, 3) generate positive affect toward the brand, and 4) motivate purchase behavior. the viability of brand familiarity based strategies given the evidence to date, it appears that brand familiarity is a viable independent mediator of brand liking and choice, but only in limited decision contexts. proposition 2: in memory-based choice situations, brand familiarity increases the probability of a brand being recalled and, therefore, facilitates inclusion in the evoked set. it seems plausible that the perceptual processes involved in such tasks are quite similar to those involved in quickly scanning a store shelf for brands to consider. the viability of brand familiarity based strategies given the evidence to date, it appears that brand familiarity is a viable independent mediator of brand liking and choice, but only in limited decision contexts. evoked sets are dependent upon the usage situation and hence, inclusion in the evoked set will be determined more by brand/situation associations than by overall familiarity with the brand. the brand familiarity construct in order to facilitate the present discussion, we will adopt a very particular working definition of brand familiarity and examine its viability. it is, therefore, important to examine in some detail factors that determine inclusion of a brand in the consumer's evoked set. validation of brand familiarity effects in marketing contexts and the establishment of their limits are prerequisites to strategic applications. brand recognition simple item familiarity, or strength, is no longer widely accepted as an explanation of recognition in the typical list learning tasks frequently studied by psychologists (see crowder 1976, ch. familiarity and advertising: effects on the evoked set and brand preference. studies measure the ability of customers to summon the name of your brand without having it appear in a list first. brand familiarity, devoid of context may still play an important role in retrieval in a number of instances. swot many of the opportunities and threats are defined based on the strengths and weaknesses of your brand. the key point for marketers is that subjective familiarity does mediate the exposure effect (obermiller 1985; stang 1975; moreland and zajonc 1977) and that brand directed attention without elaboration will generate this subjective familiarity (obermiller 1985; greenwald and leavitt 1984). increasingly, this has become a popular choice for studies of all kinds, brand studies included. this affect may serve as an input to brand choice. the magnitude of brand familiarity effects and the processes mediating such effects have received little empirical and theoretical attention. in another advertising experiment, subjects were provided brand attribute information, affective associations to the brand, and varying levels of brand name exposure (baker 1985). in another advertising experiment, subjects were provided brand attribute information, affective associations to the brand, and varying levels of brand name exposure (baker 1985). brand familiarity is a unidimensional construct that is directly related to the amount of time that has been spent processing information about the brand, regardless of the type or content of the processing that was involved.

Television a blessing or a curse essay

Brand Familiarity and Advertising: Effects on the Evoked Set and

this task does not seem especially relevant for determining which brands will be included in a stimulus-based evoked set. brand recall question types provide a higher “hurdle” than aided research. low correlations were obtained for probability of brand recall across situations, specially when the most salient or familiar brands were excluded from the analysis. brands can be included in an evoked set either by being recognized in the environment (in the case of a stimulus-based choice) or by being recalled from memory (in the case of memory-based choice; bettman 1979; lynch and srull 1982). thus, the relative level of brand familiarity among brand alternatives is the critical independent variable. two days after exposure to advertisements, subjects' reactions to the ads' affective associates were the strongest mediators of brand liking. thus, the level of focal attention increases the strength of exposure-induced brand liking, but cognitive elaboration is inhibitory. prototypicality of a brand is a measure of how representative the brand is of its product category. the frequency effect research by hasher and zacks (1984) suggests another process by which brand familiarity may mediate brand preference. it seems plausible that the perceptual processes involved in such tasks are quite similar to those involved in quickly scanning a store shelf for brands to consider. in this research, a greater average liking for brands occurred when attention towards the stimulus was facilitated rather than distracted.., mcdonalds in the case of restaurants, coke in the case of non-alcoholic beverages, or burdines and sears in the case of stores), tended to be recalled consistently whenever the product class was mentioned, probability of recall of other brands tended to be driven by situational cues. operation of the frequency effect depends only on the recognition-that one brand has been seen more than another. recent studies have attempted to generalize effects of brand name familiarity into decision contexts where other evaluative information is present. evidence directly relevant to marketing applications if brand familiarity can motivate purchase behavior. if on the other hand, prior knowledge exists and is likely to be accessed and there is sufficient decision involvement to expect cognitive elaboration in the decision process, but there is no perceived difference between brand alternatives on performance dimensions, the facilitation of the frequency effect may be a viable advertising strategy. the key point for marketers is that subjective familiarity does mediate the exposure effect (obermiller 1985; stang 1975; moreland and zajonc 1977) and that brand directed attention without elaboration will generate this subjective familiarity (obermiller 1985; greenwald and leavitt 1984). (1985), "advertising generated brand evaluation: a memory based information processing perspective. so, as exposure to a brand increases affective reactions to the brand become more favorable. evidence directly relevant to marketing applications if brand familiarity can motivate purchase behavior. this task does not seem especially relevant for determining which brands will be included in a stimulus-based evoked set. evidence suggests that while consumers may have knowledge of a large number of brands in a product class, they may consider only a few of these for purchase on any particular occasion bettman and park 1980; lussier and olshavsky 1979).., mcdonalds in the case of restaurants, coke in the case of non-alcoholic beverages, or burdines and sears in the case of stores), tended to be recalled consistently whenever the product class was mentioned, probability of recall of other brands tended to be driven by situational cues. in the present section we explore two propositions related to this thesis: proposition 3: brand familiarity generates a positive affective response to the brand that requires no effortful information processing, only brand perception. the traditional role ascribed to brand familiarity in such instances may be summarized in the following propositions: proposition 1: in stimulus-based choice situations, brand familiarity enables quicker and easier perceptual identification of a brand and, therefore, facilitates inclusion in the evoked set. finally, neither the moore and hutchinson (1985) nor the baker (1985) experiments provided evidence to discriminate whether the exposure effect or the frequency effect was the operative brand familiarity based process. the product class or subcategory to which the brand belongs could serve as a retrieval cue in many instances. in general, two types of retrieval cues could render a brand accessible on a particular choice occasion: (l) specific attributes or benefits, and (2) product class cues. brand familiarity and preference this section of the paper will explore two processes by which brand familiarity may directly mediate choice behavior through brand preference formation. olshavsky (1979), "task complexity and contingent processing in brand choice", journal of consumer research, 6, 154-65. let’s take a look at various brand health studies that in conjunction can be used to form your marketing strategy:Brand image study: gather internal and external feedback to see how closely your customer’s perception matches the brand identity that you’re trying to cultivate. this suggests that when information from advertisements are not effortfully integrated into brand memory structures, simple effects such as brand familiarity may dominate advertising-based brand evaluation, especially if there is any significant delay between the time of message exposure and brand evaluation. brands can be included in an evoked set either by being recognized in the environment (in the case of a stimulus-based choice) or by being recalled from memory (in the case of memory-based choice; bettman 1979; lynch and srull 1982). of greater interest is the proposition that brand awareness plays some causal role in the choice process.., mcdonalds in the case of restaurants, coke in the case of non-alcoholic beverages, or burdines and sears in the case of stores), tended to be recalled consistently whenever the product class was mentioned, probability of recall of other brands tended to be driven by situational cues. evoked sets are dependent upon the usage situation and hence, inclusion in the evoked set will be determined more by brand/situation associations than by overall familiarity with the brand. evoked sets are dependent upon the usage situation and hence, inclusion in the evoked set will be determined more by brand/situation associations than by overall familiarity with the brand. it suggests that effects of automatic processing can provide the input to evaluative inferences consumers draw about brands.

BRANDS AND BRANDING: RESEARCH FINDINGS AND FUTURE

brand familiarity, devoid of context may still play an important role in retrieval in a number of instances. so, as exposure to a brand increases affective reactions to the brand become more favorable. finally, neither the moore and hutchinson (1985) nor the baker (1985) experiments provided evidence to discriminate whether the exposure effect or the frequency effect was the operative brand familiarity based process. the key point for marketers is that subjective familiarity does mediate the exposure effect (obermiller 1985; stang 1975; moreland and zajonc 1977) and that brand directed attention without elaboration will generate this subjective familiarity (obermiller 1985; greenwald and leavitt 1984). in the case of brand attitude, increased exposure may not be sufficient to generate a perceivable change in affect. results of brand awareness studies can serve as fantastic benchmarks. brand familiarity is a unidimensional construct that is directly related to the amount of time that has been spent processing information about the brand, regardless of the type or content of the processing that was involved. brand familiarity and the evoked set wright and barbour (1975) list three stages of a consumer decision - defining the pool of alternatives, reviewing relevant information in memory and applying a decision rule. prakash nedungadi, university of toronto introduction it is a well known fact that brand awareness, or familiarity, and brand choice are highly correlated (axelrod 1968; haley and case 1979). using an advertising format, moore and hutchinson (1985), measured subjects' reactions to affective associates to the brand (e. a consumer faced with product choice in a usage situation makes use of these retrieval cues to recall and consider brands strongly associated with them. these three studies are important because they demonstrate that (l) brand name familiarity is a sufficient condition to enhance brand attitudes and brand choice and (2) that these effects occur in natural settings. Here's how to conduct brand awareness studies to close the gap. in the present section we explore two propositions related to this thesis: proposition 3: brand familiarity generates a positive affective response to the brand that requires no effortful information processing, only brand perception. (1985), "advertising generated brand evaluation: a memory based information processing perspective. proposition 2: in memory-based choice situations, brand familiarity increases the probability of a brand being recalled and, therefore, facilitates inclusion in the evoked set. familiarity and advertising: effects on the evoked set and brand preference. brand recognition simple item familiarity, or strength, is no longer widely accepted as an explanation of recognition in the typical list learning tasks frequently studied by psychologists (see crowder 1976, ch. in the case of brand choice, increased exposure may not create greater liking of a brand over an alternative. with almost a direct ratio, brand preference rose along with brand awareness:Want to learn more about brand awareness surveys? the frequency effect research by hasher and zacks (1984) suggests another process by which brand familiarity may mediate brand preference. in general, two types of retrieval cues could render a brand accessible on a particular choice occasion: (l) specific attributes or benefits, and (2) product class cues. exposure generated familiarity significantly influenced brand preference and brand choice (becknell, wilson and baird 1963). finally, brand familiarity is unlikely to exert a robust effect on consumers' brand attitudes and decisions when extensive product knowledge is available or when involvement is high. with regard to the frequency effect, perceivable between brand differences in exposure-based habituation is not the issue. in the remainder of this paper we examine two principal ways in which brand familiarity might affect brand choice: (1) by increasing the likelihood that the brand is included in the evoked set, and (2) by contributing to brand preference. a consumer faced with product choice in a usage situation makes use of these retrieval cues to recall and consider brands strongly associated with them. the viability of brand familiarity based strategies given the evidence to date, it appears that brand familiarity is a viable independent mediator of brand liking and choice, but only in limited decision contexts. prototypicality of a brand is a measure of how representative the brand is of its product category. and, like the habituation process, it requires only sufficient attention to generate brand perception to operate. as this discussion suggests, whenever situation specific cues trigger retrieval, a general familiarity with the brand may not be as important as familiarity with the brand in that situation. moreover, this definition specifically assumes that brand familiarity is context-independent and is affected in more or less the same way by advertising exposures, purchase behavior, and product consumption or usage. of greater interest is the proposition that brand awareness plays some causal role in the choice process. it suggests that effects of automatic processing can provide the input to evaluative inferences consumers draw about brands. further, probability of choice is a function of both the number and nature of the other brands included in the evoked set (e. first, a brand that is not considered cannot be chosen. growing your sales funnel, the place to start is at the top, by increasing brand awareness. with regard to the frequency effect, perceivable between brand differences in exposure-based habituation is not the issue.

Brand Awareness, Attitudes, and Usage (A&U)

in an exploratory study subjects were given usage situational cues and asked to list the brands that came to mind, within specific product classes. the composition of such an evoked set has important influences on subsequent probabilities of brand choice.., performance attributes) are not available or cannot discriminate between brand alternatives. in the present section we explore two propositions related to this thesis: proposition 3: brand familiarity generates a positive affective response to the brand that requires no effortful information processing, only brand perception. this suggests that the viability of the exposure effect as a communication goal may be limited to situations where subjective brand familiarity of the advertised brand is not on the asymptote of the frequency-affect curve. in both instances, the cues available to the consumer could determine the set of brands considered for choice. except in the cases of habitual purchase behavior, however, brand choice explicitly requires interbrand comparisons. brand familiarity is a unidimensional construct that is directly related to the amount of time that has been spent processing information about the brand, regardless of the type or content of the processing that was involved. it suggests that effects of automatic processing can provide the input to evaluative inferences consumers draw about brands. the magnitude of brand familiarity effects and the processes mediating such effects have received little empirical and theoretical attention. the product class or subcategory to which the brand belongs could serve as a retrieval cue in many instances. hutchinson (1984), "the prototypicality of brands: relationships with brand awareness, preference and usage," in advances in consumer research, eds. in these cases, brand position on the frequency-affect curve may be at the asymptote. hutchinson (1984), "the prototypicality of brands: relationships with brand awareness, preference and usage," in advances in consumer research, eds. significant effects of brand name familiarity on purchase intention occurred, but like moore and hutchinson (1985), only after a week's delay from advertisement exposure. when the product class serves as a retrieval cue, brands that are prototypical are likely to be recalled faster and more often (nedungadi and hutchinson 1985; also see barsalou 1985; rosch and mervis 1975). the product class or subcategory to which the brand belongs could serve as a retrieval cue in many instances. moderators of brand familiarity effects empirical research suggests that the duration of attention, not the number of prior exposures facilitates the exposure effect. with regard to the frequency effect, perceivable between brand differences in exposure-based habituation is not the issue. therefore, if the communication goal is facilitation of the exposure effect, then advertising should be designed to maintain focal attention towards the brand name or package without causing the consumer to negatively elaborate on the message. the traditional role ascribed to brand familiarity in such instances may be summarized in the following propositions: proposition 1: in stimulus-based choice situations, brand familiarity enables quicker and easier perceptual identification of a brand and, therefore, facilitates inclusion in the evoked set. evidence directly relevant to marketing applications if brand familiarity can motivate purchase behavior. attitudinal versus choice effects since brand attitude formation does not require explicit interbrand comparisons, the absolute level of affect generated by brand familiarity will directly influence the level of brand liking. the traditional role ascribed to brand familiarity in such instances may be summarized in the following propositions: proposition 1: in stimulus-based choice situations, brand familiarity enables quicker and easier perceptual identification of a brand and, therefore, facilitates inclusion in the evoked set. in an exploratory study subjects were given usage situational cues and asked to list the brands that came to mind, within specific product classes. therefore, if the communication goal is facilitation of the exposure effect, then advertising should be designed to maintain focal attention towards the brand name or package without causing the consumer to negatively elaborate on the message. in general, two types of retrieval cues could render a brand accessible on a particular choice occasion: (l) specific attributes or benefits, and (2) product class cues. when the product class serves as a retrieval cue, brands that are prototypical are likely to be recalled faster and more often (nedungadi and hutchinson 1985; also see barsalou 1985; rosch and mervis 1975). on the positive side, both sets of the results also suggest that higher order effects of advertising decay much more rapidly than effects of brand familiarity. brands can be included in an evoked set either by being recognized in the environment (in the case of a stimulus-based choice) or by being recalled from memory (in the case of memory-based choice; bettman 1979; lynch and srull 1982). with regard to the exposure effect, the nature of the exposure-frequency function suggests that both absolute and relative effects may be difficult to achieve if the brand(s) involved in the evaluation have high brand familiarity prior to subsequent exposures (harrison 1977. operation of the frequency effect depends only on the recognition-that one brand has been seen more than another. this suggests that when information from advertisements are not effortfully integrated into brand memory structures, simple effects such as brand familiarity may dominate advertising-based brand evaluation, especially if there is any significant delay between the time of message exposure and brand evaluation. significant effects of brand name familiarity on purchase intention occurred, but like moore and hutchinson (1985), only after a week's delay from advertisement exposure. operation of the frequency effect depends only on the recognition-that one brand has been seen more than another. further, probability of choice is a function of both the number and nature of the other brands included in the evoked set (e. in many instances then, situation-specific familiarity may exert a greater influence on probability of choice than brand familiarity in general.., performance attributes) are not available or cannot discriminate between brand alternatives.

A study to indicate the importance of brand awareness in brand choice

The Effect of Advertising Awareness on Brand Equity in Social Media

one week after exposure, however, brand name familiarity ratings were the dominant attitudinal mediator. the impact of brand awareness on customer loyalty: a case study of sinapi aba savings and loans ltd.., brand attribute beliefs or source credibility) which require greater information processing intensity are not accessible or cannot discriminate between brand alternatives, then brand familiarity may be a viable marketing communications strategy. brand familiarity and the evoked set wright and barbour (1975) list three stages of a consumer decision - defining the pool of alternatives, reviewing relevant information in memory and applying a decision rule. in the case of brand attitude, increased exposure may not be sufficient to generate a perceivable change in affect. case (1979), "testing thirteen attitude scales for agreement and brand discrimination journal or marketing, 43, 20-32. in the present section we explore two propositions related to this thesis: proposition 3: brand familiarity generates a positive affective response to the brand that requires no effortful information processing, only brand perception. in an exploratory study subjects were given usage situational cues and asked to list the brands that came to mind, within specific product classes. after examining relevant literature we are led to the conclusion that brand familiarity is a viable, albeit limited, marketing tool for influencing consumer decisions. in the case of brand choice, increased exposure may not create greater liking of a brand over an alternative. on the positive side, both sets of the results also suggest that higher order effects of advertising decay much more rapidly than effects of brand familiarity. moderators of brand familiarity effects empirical research suggests that the duration of attention, not the number of prior exposures facilitates the exposure effect. this suggests that except in the case of extremely familiar brands such as coke, overall brand familiarity mag influence recall less than context-specific considerations. this suggests that the viability of the exposure effect as a communication goal may be limited to situations where subjective brand familiarity of the advertised brand is not on the asymptote of the frequency-affect curve. evidence from these two experiments suggests that if meaning is conferred to the stimulus through a complex cognitive process such as attribute belief formation (lutz 1975) or simple process such as source evaluation (petty, cacioppo and schumann 1983; sternthal, dholakia and leavitt 1978; holbrook 1978), then the direct effects of brand name familiarity on evaluation will be attenuated. this affect may serve as an input to brand choice. evidence directly relevant to marketing applications if brand familiarity can motivate purchase behavior. a consumer faced with product choice in a usage situation makes use of these retrieval cues to recall and consider brands strongly associated with them.., brand attribute beliefs or source credibility) which require greater information processing intensity are not accessible or cannot discriminate between brand alternatives, then brand familiarity may be a viable marketing communications strategy. three early experiments that tested the generalizability of the exposure effect provided the first evidence that brand familiarity can directly mediate consumers' purchase decisions. finally, brand familiarity is unlikely to exert a robust effect on consumers' brand attitudes and decisions when extensive product knowledge is available or when involvement is high. proposition 4: brand familiarity can directly mediate choice behavior, but only when mediators which are the product of higher level information (i. using an advertising format, moore and hutchinson (1985), measured subjects' reactions to affective associates to the brand (e. studies measure the ability for customers to recognize your brand from a list of brands shown. evidence suggests that while consumers may have knowledge of a large number of brands in a product class, they may consider only a few of these for purchase on any particular occasion bettman and park 1980; lussier and olshavsky 1979).., performance attributes) are not available or cannot discriminate between brand alternatives. after examining relevant literature we are led to the conclusion that brand familiarity is a viable, albeit limited, marketing tool for influencing consumer decisions. validation of brand familiarity effects in marketing contexts and the establishment of their limits are prerequisites to strategic applications. in the case of brand choice, increased exposure may not create greater liking of a brand over an alternative. significant effects of brand name familiarity on purchase intention occurred, but like moore and hutchinson (1985), only after a week's delay from advertisement exposure. this relationship undoubtably reflects the fact that choice increases awareness, if for no reason other than people will be exposed to the brands they choose more often than brands they leave on the shelf. thus, the logogen model provides a natural theoretical basis for brand familiarity on perceptual identification. brand familiarity is likely to: 1) enhance perceptual identification of a brand, 2) increase the probability of inclusion in the evoked set, 3) generate positive affect toward the brand, and 4) motivate purchase behavior. brand familiarity and the evoked set wright and barbour (1975) list three stages of a consumer decision - defining the pool of alternatives, reviewing relevant information in memory and applying a decision rule. brand familiarity and preference this section of the paper will explore two processes by which brand familiarity may directly mediate choice behavior through brand preference formation. in consumer research volume 13, 1986      pages 637-642 brand familiarity and advertising: effects on the evoked set and brand preference william baker, university of florida j. it is integral to the topmost section of the customer purchase funnel and dictates how large that section is:You can only get out of the funnel as much as you put in, so it’s important to know how your brand awareness stacks up with the competition. evoked sets are dependent upon the usage situation and hence, inclusion in the evoked set will be determined more by brand/situation associations than by overall familiarity with the brand.

when the product class serves as a retrieval cue, brands that are prototypical are likely to be recalled faster and more often (nedungadi and hutchinson 1985; also see barsalou 1985; rosch and mervis 1975). advertisements which are short, but effective in generating sufficient attention to cause brand perception will operationalize this strategy at the minimum cost in advertising dollars. brand familiarity and preference this section of the paper will explore two processes by which brand familiarity may directly mediate choice behavior through brand preference formation. increased awareness is unarguably a good for your brand, it stands to reason that there is a direct correlation here with brand preference. brand recall most current accounts of recall postulate that information in memory is accessed via retrieval cues (crowder 1976). it is, therefore, important to examine in some detail factors that determine inclusion of a brand in the consumer's evoked set. byike tandoh  connect to downloadget pdf the impact of brand awareness on customer loyalty: a case study of sinapi aba savings and loans ltd. on the positive side, both sets of the results also suggest that higher order effects of advertising decay much more rapidly than effects of brand familiarity. low correlations were obtained for probability of brand recall across situations, specially when the most salient or familiar brands were excluded from the analysis. the brand familiarity construct in order to facilitate the present discussion, we will adopt a very particular working definition of brand familiarity and examine its viability. in an exploratory study subjects were given usage situational cues and asked to list the brands that came to mind, within specific product classes. thus, brand familiarity is the most rudimentary form of consumer knowledge. thus, the level of focal attention increases the strength of exposure-induced brand liking, but cognitive elaboration is inhibitory. in the case of brand attitude, increased exposure may not be sufficient to generate a perceivable change in affect. except in the cases of habitual purchase behavior, however, brand choice explicitly requires interbrand comparisons. thus, these experiments support the potential for brand name familiarity based marketing strategies, but they were achieved in informationally spargee decision environments. if the online panel company you’ve chosen to run your car brand study through claims that it can target those who are in the market to purchase a car with the next 12 months, given the margin of error that exists within panel companies you’ll still want to asked a question early in the survey confirming that this is the case. the pattern of findings strongly suggests that brand name familiarity became the dominant mediator in delay because affective reactions to the ads were forgotten. further, probability of choice is a function of both the number and nature of the other brands included in the evoked set (e. advertisements which are short, but effective in generating sufficient attention to cause brand perception will operationalize this strategy at the minimum cost in advertising dollars. a consumer faced with product choice in a usage situation makes use of these retrieval cues to recall and consider brands strongly associated with them. first, a brand that is not considered cannot be chosen. unless the customer has a “top of mind” selection, they will automatically recognize the brands where a level of familiarity already exists. brands can be included in an evoked set either by being recognized in the environment (in the case of a stimulus-based choice) or by being recalled from memory (in the case of memory-based choice; bettman 1979; lynch and srull 1982). thus, the level of focal attention increases the strength of exposure-induced brand liking, but cognitive elaboration is inhibitory. this suggests that except in the case of extremely familiar brands such as coke, overall brand familiarity mag influence recall less than context-specific considerations. this task does not seem especially relevant for determining which brands will be included in a stimulus-based evoked set. three early experiments that tested the generalizability of the exposure effect provided the first evidence that brand familiarity can directly mediate consumers' purchase decisions. olshavsky (1979), "task complexity and contingent processing in brand choice", journal of consumer research, 6, 154-65. and, like the habituation process, it requires only sufficient attention to generate brand perception to operate. brand recognition simple item familiarity, or strength, is no longer widely accepted as an explanation of recognition in the typical list learning tasks frequently studied by psychologists (see crowder 1976, ch. it seems plausible that the perceptual processes involved in such tasks are quite similar to those involved in quickly scanning a store shelf for brands to consider. evidence suggests that while consumers may have knowledge of a large number of brands in a product class, they may consider only a few of these for purchase on any particular occasion bettman and park 1980; lussier and olshavsky 1979). in another advertising experiment, subjects were provided brand attribute information, affective associations to the brand, and varying levels of brand name exposure (baker 1985). at a minimum brand awareness surveys should be run once a year, but other opportunities arise as you assess the strengths and weaknesses of your product. thus, these experiments support the potential for brand name familiarity based marketing strategies, but they were achieved in informationally spargee decision environments. three early experiments that tested the generalizability of the exposure effect provided the first evidence that brand familiarity can directly mediate consumers' purchase decisions. this relationship undoubtably reflects the fact that choice increases awareness, if for no reason other than people will be exposed to the brands they choose more often than brands they leave on the shelf.

of greater interest is the proposition that brand awareness plays some causal role in the choice process. specifically, perceptual identification will be impaired if cues present in the environment during purchase do not match those present during previous exposures to the brand. in the remainder of this paper we examine two principal ways in which brand familiarity might affect brand choice: (1) by increasing the likelihood that the brand is included in the evoked set, and (2) by contributing to brand preference. brand familiarity and the evoked set wright and barbour (1975) list three stages of a consumer decision - defining the pool of alternatives, reviewing relevant information in memory and applying a decision rule. the primary caveat to these conclusions is that brand familiarity effects may be highly context dependent. proposition 4: brand familiarity can directly mediate choice behavior, but only when mediators which are the product of higher level information (i. these three studies are important because they demonstrate that (l) brand name familiarity is a sufficient condition to enhance brand attitudes and brand choice and (2) that these effects occur in natural settings. in general, two types of retrieval cues could render a brand accessible on a particular choice occasion: (l) specific attributes or benefits, and (2) product class cues. in both instances, the cues available to the consumer could determine the set of brands considered for choice. evidence from these two experiments suggests that if meaning is conferred to the stimulus through a complex cognitive process such as attribute belief formation (lutz 1975) or simple process such as source evaluation (petty, cacioppo and schumann 1983; sternthal, dholakia and leavitt 1978; holbrook 1978), then the direct effects of brand name familiarity on evaluation will be attenuated. it suggests that effects of automatic processing can provide the input to evaluative inferences consumers draw about brands. the impact of brand awareness on customer loyalty: a case study of sinapi aba savings and loans ltd. this suggests that the viability of the exposure effect as a communication goal may be limited to situations where subjective brand familiarity of the advertised brand is not on the asymptote of the frequency-affect curve. if on the other hand, prior knowledge exists and is likely to be accessed and there is sufficient decision involvement to expect cognitive elaboration in the decision process, but there is no perceived difference between brand alternatives on performance dimensions, the facilitation of the frequency effect may be a viable advertising strategy. prototypicality of a brand is a measure of how representative the brand is of its product category. ways to conduct your brand study: online and telephone surveys. in these cases, brand position on the frequency-affect curve may be at the asymptote. thus, the relative level of brand familiarity among brand alternatives is the critical independent variable. thus, brand familiarity is the most rudimentary form of consumer knowledge. this affect may serve as an input to brand choice. moreover, this definition specifically assumes that brand familiarity is context-independent and is affected in more or less the same way by advertising exposures, purchase behavior, and product consumption or usage. the viability of brand familiarity based strategies given the evidence to date, it appears that brand familiarity is a viable independent mediator of brand liking and choice, but only in limited decision contexts. brand familiarity is a unidimensional construct that is directly related to the amount of time that has been spent processing information about the brand, regardless of the type or content of the processing that was involved. the composition of such an evoked set has important influences on subsequent probabilities of brand choice. in the remainder of this paper we examine two principal ways in which brand familiarity might affect brand choice: (1) by increasing the likelihood that the brand is included in the evoked set, and (2) by contributing to brand preference. this relationship undoubtably reflects the fact that choice increases awareness, if for no reason other than people will be exposed to the brands they choose more often than brands they leave on the shelf. interestingly, the significant effects of brand name familiarity occurred only when (l) the accessibility of advertisement execution information and brand attribute information was at its lowest level and (2) relative brand name familiarity (brand name familiarity relative to competing brand alternatives) was at its highest level. thus, the relative level of brand familiarity among brand alternatives is the critical independent variable. therefore, if the communication goal is facilitation of the exposure effect, then advertising should be designed to maintain focal attention towards the brand name or package without causing the consumer to negatively elaborate on the message.., mcdonalds in the case of restaurants, coke in the case of non-alcoholic beverages, or burdines and sears in the case of stores), tended to be recalled consistently whenever the product class was mentioned, probability of recall of other brands tended to be driven by situational cues. two days after exposure to advertisements, subjects' reactions to the ads' affective associates were the strongest mediators of brand liking. these three studies are important because they demonstrate that (l) brand name familiarity is a sufficient condition to enhance brand attitudes and brand choice and (2) that these effects occur in natural settings. pages the impact of brand awareness on customer loyalty: a case study of sinapi aba savings and loans ltd. in these cases, brand position on the frequency-affect curve may be at the asymptote. in consumer research volume 13, 1986      pages 637-642 brand familiarity and advertising: effects on the evoked set and brand preference william baker, university of florida j. and, like the habituation process, it requires only sufficient attention to generate brand perception to operate. surveys provide are an affordable option to provide high quality data for your brand health study. in another advertising experiment, subjects were provided brand attribute information, affective associations to the brand, and varying levels of brand name exposure (baker 1985).

Go HOme Sitemap