Witchcraft 15th century essay
Witch-hunt - Wikipedia
declared in the 8th century that belief in the existence of witches was un-.- in this essay i will be writing about the effectiveness of the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments to the constitution of the united states of america and considering whether they achieved the purpose of making life better for african americans.- during the 19th century, women were controlled by a male dominated society.- the innovative ideas, along with the effective marketing and managerial strategies at johnson & johnson have made the company thrive for over a century.. trevor-roper, the european witch-craze of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and other essays, (new york: harper and row, 1969), 118. ministry of church and the intellectuals began to speak out against the trials from the late 16th century. believed in witchcraft in the 17th century because they needed a way to explain the unexplainable, according to the bbc.- the oppression of woman is evident in the everyday life of a women living in the 19th century. witchcraft and magic in sixteenth and seventeenth-century europe (second ed. enter the title keyword:Free Witchcraft papers, essays, and research papers. this paper discusses the many roles and issues that the teacher-librarian plays in creating a flexible 21st century learning environment. in this essay i will talk about; the growing wealth of italy, divided italy, the classical period, humanists, trade and exploration. the witch trials had begun to fade out across much of europe by the mid-17th century, they continued to a greater extent on the borders of europe and in the american colonies.- music has shaped the world throughout the years, but many agree that the 20th century held the most debatable, most molding, and most inspiring music that we have yet to witness. our thousands of essays:If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom religious studies and theology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?
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throughout the 16th century, there had been isolated expressions of scepticism regarding the trial, increasing throughout the 17th century. in scandinavia, the late 17th century saw the peak of the trials in a number of areas; for instance, in 1675, the torsã¥ker witch trials took place in sweden, where 71 people were executed for witchcraft in a single day. we are over a decade into a century which has brought forth an information age with limitless resources and instant access to information. witch-hunts first appeared in large numbers in southern france and switzerland during the 14th and 15th centuries.- at the beginning of the seventeenth century, society was more or less divided into three groups. in the nordic countries, the late 17th century saw the peak of the trials in a number of areas: the torsåker witch trials of sweden (1674), where 71 people were executed for witchcraft in a single day, the peak of witch hunting in swedish finland, and the salzburg witch trials in austria (where 139 people were executed from 1675–1690). this became even more important during the 20th century, when many people were trying to persuade others or share their emotions and histories. nineteenth century english women would have struggled to accomplish any of these particular acts of heroism within their social environment as ultimately, their roles within civilisation saw them becoming a good wives and mothers and before that, obliging and caring daughters.- introduction progressive movements in the 19th century during the 19th century, the united states experienced various phrases of change which shaped the face of america. enter the title keyword:Free 15th century papers, essays, and research papers. the slave trade did have something to do with the trials, because the first accused witch was an african/ west indian slave, massachusetts was also the first colony to hold slave ownership and the centre for slave trade throughout the 17th century." chapter in the witch and history: early modern and twentieth century representatives new york, ny: routledge, 1996, pp.- in the 19th century, at least 80% of the population was working class, to be middle class you had to have at least one servant. of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the constitution of the united states of america. austria, maria theresa outlawed witch-burning and torture in the late 18th century (the last capital trial occurring in salzburg in 1750).
Witch trials in the early modern period - Wikipedia
out in the late 18th century through judicial actions prosecuted on behalf of slaves. late-sixteenth-century illustration of a witch feeding her familiars from england.- the 19th century woman is very comparable to the 21st century woman.- the influence of witchcraft on feminism the witch-hunt that blazed a trail across europe (and indeed the world) over the 15th to 18th centuries stripped women of much of the power they had historically held.- how many of us can recall the most important events that occurred in the 20th century. the last executions of people convicted as witches in europe took place in the 18th century. hunts declined in the early eighteenth century with the growth of the enlightenment and rationalism among the educated elites. persecution of witches continued in the roman empire until the late 4th century ad and abated only after the introduction of christianity as the roman state religion in the 390s. average age at first marriage had gradually risen by late sixteenth century; the population had stabilized after a period of growth and availability of jobs and land had lessened. in this century, the factory system replaced the system where people were working in their own homes or small workshops. of the 18th century compared to women of the 21st century. 21st century school library media specialist the roles discussed in the articles written by school librarians mashriqi (2011), ballard (2008), and marcoux (2010) were similar in strategies needed for running an effective media center today.- contrary to popular belief, ideas on femininity in the eighteenth century were not so much restrictive as in the nineteenth, at least not where sex was concerned.- in the late nineteenth century, an increasingly flow of immigrants from many parts of the world made their way to america searching for a dream that gave birth to term “american dream” still alive today. period of witch trials in early modern europe were a widespread moral panic suggesting that malevolent satanic witches were operating as an organized threat to christendom during the 15th to 18th centuries.
America and Eastern European religions and witchcraft - Essay UK
- the 21st century school librarian is no longer just the caretaker of the book collection. the 15th amendment monumentally changed the structure of american politics as it was no longer the privileged whites who could vote. in this essay i will critically analyse the poem, the flea written by john donne in which he makes light of his sexual intentions with his lover. the women of the 19th century had a unique style, very little rights, and hard roles. in the 16th century, women were looked upon as a gender that should stay in the house and work, not have power and rule over a country.- in the twentieth century, musicians were very open to change.- witchcraft was as a capital crime in seventeenth-century new england. available from:If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:Latest essays in this category:10-11-16 - how islam vi̇ews same sex marriage and i̇ts effect on publi̇c opi̇ni̇on28-07-16 - different causes of cultism in tertiary institution29-06-16 - what is the new age movement? until seventeenth century english colonials did not develop a slave trade. but at the end of the 17th century things started to look better for. the first of these actually appeared in the last few years of the 19th century, being a manuscript that american folklorist charles leland claimed he had been given by a woman who was a member of a group of witches worshipping the god lucifer and goddess diana in tuscany, italy. in the 19th century, some scholars were agnostic, for instance jacob grimm (1844) talked of "countless" victims and charles mackay (1841) named "thousands upon thousands".- in the latter half of the 18th century, freed slaves possessed the right to vote in all but three states. free Religious Studies and Theology essay on America and Eastern European religions and witchcraft is perfect for Religious Studies and Theology students to use as an example. taking its time to establish a radically theological point of view, this essay aims to apply it to the body of novel literature in 18th century england, probing and inquiring it whether it is in support of christianity as laid down in the new testament or not.
Shakespeare and Witchcraft - Shakespeare Studies - Research
lyndal roper has shown that many witchcraft accusations in ausburg in the late sixteenth and early 17th century arose out of conflicts between mothers and the lying-in maids who provided care for them and their infants for a number of weeks after birth. persecution of those believed to perform malevolent sorcery against their neighbors continued into the 20th century.- with the “successive reigns by two educated queens” in the sixteenth century there began a close examination of the woman’s role in society (hull 1).- in the seventeenth century, there was no authorized political place for women in the social hierarchy scale. the european witch-craze of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and other essays. at estimating the total number of executions for witchcraft have a history going back to the end of the period of witch-hunts in the 18th century. each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. the witch trials only really began in the 15th century, with the start of the early modern period, many of their causes had been developing during the previous centuries, with the prosecution of heresy by the medieval inquisition during the late twelfth and the thirteenth centuries, and during the late medieval period, during which the idea of witchcraft or sorcery gradually changed and adapted. although it has been proposed that the witch-hunt developed in europe from the early 14th century, after the cathars and the templar knights were suppressed, this hypothesis has been rejected independently by two historians (cohn 1975; kieckhefer 1976). that the religious intensity of the original settlers would reduce to some extent over time was perhaps to be expected, but new waves of 18th century immigrants brought their own religious enthusiasm across the atlantic and the nation’s first major religious renewal in the middle of the 18th century injected new power into american religion. high art at the dawn of the 21st century is confined, controlled and contrived by the fiscal pursuits inherent in free marketeering.- the early twentieth century saw an upheaval of normal life in europe because of the great war and the changing political and social systems., in the 18th century the enlightenment culminated, science and philosophy increased. as a whole, coney island at the turn of the century, offered the ways of the future in distinctive ways; through technological advances of the era.- the role of women in learning and education underwent a gradual change in the afro-eurasian world and the americas between the 11th and 15th centuries.
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History Essay Witchcraft | Jim Moooore -
. sharpe also notes the prevalence of women as accusers in seventeenth-century yorkshire cases, concluding that 'on a village level witchcraft seems to have been something peculiarly enmeshed in women's quarrels.- nineteenth century literature heroines and conformity by definition, a heroine is a woman who would typically encompass the qualities of nobility, courage, independence and strength. in late 14th century and early 15th century florence, decreased population and expanding commerce provided a favorable environment for ambitious individuals.- witchcraft in the 17th century witchcraft in europe during the 17th century was common. the witch trials had begun to fade out across much of europe by the mid-17th century, they continued on the fringes of europe and in the american colonies. religion and the decline of magic: studies in popular beliefs in sixteenth and seventeenth century england. 18th century witnessed increased urbanization and technological development in europe, giving european early modern society an increased belief in its own abilities to fashion the world and leading to the decrease in the belief of invisible forces affecting humanity. nineteenth century feminists began to question the laws, and regulations that were placed by the government at that time. 6–7) in an earlier unpublished essay, hutton counted local estimates, and in areas where estimates were unavailable attempted to extrapolate from nearby regions with similar demographics and attitudes towards witch hunting. the early 20th century, a number of individuals and groups emerged in europe, primarily britain, and subsequently the united states as well, claiming to be the surviving remnants of the pagan witch-cult described in the works of margaret murray. in the early 20th century, some scholarly estimates on the number of executions still ranged in the hundreds of thousands.- requirement of reform of the church in europe during 15th and 16th centuries the church in europe required reform at the end of the fifteenth century and the beginning of the sixteenth century for a number of reasons.- the vinland map: 15th century artifact or 20th century forgery.^ "christian theology underwent a major shift of attitude only during the 13th century. in the middle of the 17th century, the difficulty in proving witchcraft according to legal process contributed to the councilors of rothenburg (german), following advice to treat witchcraft cases with caution.
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The Scapegoat: Impotence and Witchcraft in the Middle Ages
- the twentieth century was an era full of revolutionary changes that shaped the world.- the oj simpson case has been hailed "the trial of the century. john locke, a philosopher, thomas hobbes, a political philosopher, and bishop bossuet, a theologist and bishop, are three people from the 17th century whose views has set courses in history. through this unique combination of ideals, disraeli was able navigate britain through the mid nineteenth century, restore prestige to the monarchy and aristocracy, and enlarge the rights of the commoner.- as empirical evidence discovered by 21st-century science allows the world’s understanding of the physical universe to increase exponentially, more people grow skeptical of superstition.- the 17th century was a period of time dealing with a drastic change that has veered the world into a new state of affairs. to be a woman in the 19th century meant being someone’s property, someone’s responsibility and defiantly not able to make your own decisions. many of the colonies that in 1776 became the united states of america were settled by men and women of deep religious beliefs who in the 17th century crossed the atlantic ocean to practice their faith freely. the music history of the 20th century is elvis presley, bob dylan, frank sinatra, and the beatles.- between the mid-16th century and the early 17th centuries, immigrants branched from the church of england, and absconded to america to construct a religion that “…steer[ed] the church toward a more protestant, calvinistic theology, and purge[d] the church of all remnants of catholicism.- the intersection of religion and politics in 17th-19th century africa the stories of dona beatriz, uthman dan fodio, and guimba the tyrant present three cases in which religion and politics overlapped in different ways and to varying degrees.^ a b c the belief in and persecution of witches especially in germanic pagan europe is reflected in germanic law, and in an episode in jordanes' getica (6th century). the female gender had been a largely marginalized and went on during the time between the 15th and 17th centuries, as described by historians, “it consists of comparing woman's situation implicitly or explicitly to men's by focusing on law, prescriptive literature, iconographic representation, institutional structure, and political participation. the later 18th century, witchcraft had ceased to be considered a criminal offense throughout europe, but there are a number of cases which were not technically witch trials but are suspected to have involved belief in witches at least behind the scenes.- perception, understanding and judgment of humankind were far backward in the sixteenth century.
Historian investigates the history of witchcraft prosecution | Stanford
in the last decades of the century the age at marriage had climbed to averages of 25 for women and 27 for men in england and the low countries as more people married later or remained unmarried due to lack of money or resources and a decline in living standards, and these averages remained high for nearly two centuries and averages across northwestern europe had done likewise. scholars have pointed out that beginning in the fourteenth century the christian establishment of europe was forced to deal with an beginning of social, economic, and religious changes. is a 21st century classroom one which houses a variety of technologies readily available to the teacher and students. all of these have elements that make people wonder what the problem with people is in this century. therefore if, she described it as such, what can it tell us about the sexual history of the 20th century. 20th century - the most violent century of all time. reformation of the 16th century were to tear apart christendom into hostile factions, atheism and agnosticism have spread across europe. based on ronald hutton's essay counting the witch hunt. in austria, maria theresa outlawed witch-burning and torture in the late 18th century; the last capital trial took place in salzburg in 1750.- given the social struggle of ethnic mexicans in the united states, the 20th century turned to be pivotal in the social movements that would not only create opportunities but mobilize the ethnic mexicans to push forward and make sure their voices where heard all throughout the century. driven by economic and financial hardships, persecutions, and great social and political turmoil of the nineteenth century, millions of people and families left their homelands and embarked on the difficult journey to the united states of america. the 15th amendment of the us constitution states, “ the right of citizens of the united states to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the united states or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. there had been a growth in the number of sorcery trials in europe during the fourteenth century. the catalog of typical charges that would later be leveled at witches, of spreading diseases, committing orgies (sometimes incestuous), cannibalizing children, and following satanism, emerged during the 14th century as crimes attributed to heretics and jews. for the victims of the witch-hunts of 16th- and 17th-century bernau, germany by annelie grund.
Witch Burning in the Fourteenth Century Was Completely Pointless
- by accentuating the female’s roles and responsibilities in the 19th century, mary shelley emphasizes females as domestic and explains her story from a feminist viewpoint, and shows how females in her novel were created from actual people in her life. rationalist historians interpreted the witch trials as an example of mass superstition, and thus their end in the 18th century was seen as a revival of common sense among the population. 18th century witnessed increased urbanisation and technological development in europe, which gave early modern society an increased belief in its own abilities to fashion the world; this led to a decreasing belief in the existence of invisible forces affecting humanity. voigt's number has shown remarkably resilient as an influential popular myth, surviving well into the 20th century, especially in feminist and neo-pagan literature. i do not believe that the eu will cease to exist in the coming century, but i do believe it will become obsolete because it will be unable to make the necessary changes to their demographic problems, defense policies, and economic culture in response to the increasing american ascendency. changes in the doctrinal shift were completed in the mid 15th century, specifically in the wake of the council of basel and centered on the duchy of savoy in the western alps, leading to an early series of witch trials by both secular and ecclesiastical courts in the second half of the 15th century.^ "we are reasonably confident today that the 'classical' doctrine of witchcraft crystallized during the middle third of the 15th century, shortly after the council of basel, primarily within a western alpine zone centred around the duchy of savoy (ostorero et al. nevertheless, the 20th century presented a copious amount of remarkable artists that introduced us to many arts that were modernism and postmodernism; such as pablo picasso his work of art were considered a modern art, and marcel duchamp involved. "estimates of executions (based on hutton's essay 'counting the witch hunt')". catherine clinton, a professor of american history, elaborates in her book, the other civil war: american women in the nineteenth century, that it was even accepted for women to have a high sex drive.- during the late nineteenth century, america was undergoing a cultural change in society.- metaphysical wit and conceit are two of the most famous literary devices used in the seventeenth century by poets such as john donne. there were trials in the 15th and early 16th centuries, but then the witch scare went into decline, before becoming a major issue again and peaking in the 17th century. in the textbook literacy for the 21st century: a balanced approach there are eight principles an educator can use to be successful in the classroom. the 20th century contributed an abundance of improvements to our culture.Free Witchcraft Essays and Papers
essentially miller uses the 17th century setting to provide critical distance between the events described and the emotions that they aroused.- in 17th century euro-america puritan society believed that men played a patriarchal role upon women, and that this role was instituted by god and nature. witchcraft and magic in sixteenth and seventeenth-century europe (second ed. this essay attempts to deal with the epidemic of witch persecutions, how the phenomenon came about and to what degree and whom was it accepted.- the period of 18th and 19th century is marked by the greatest transformations, reformations, revolutions and many other critical events that ever took place in human history.- start of the renaissance in italy during the 15th century the word renaissance means rebirth.- czarist russia gennady shkliarevsky spring 2010 in the eighteenth century, muscovy was transformed into a partially westernized and secularized russian state as a result of the rapid and aggressively implemented reforms of peter the great (1694-1725).^ "by the end of the 15th century, scattered trials for witchcraft by both secular and ecclesiastical courts occurred in many places from the pyrenees, where the spanish inquisition had become involved, to the north sea. this could have been based on the hunts in the 17th century where rumored witches were hunted.- woman in the nineteenth century, by margaret fuller in her essay, woman in the nineteenth century, margaret fuller discusses the state of marriage in america during the 1800‘s. 20th-century western society, the witch trials were used as "a synonym for pointless persecution", such as the red scare and mccarthyism in the 1950s united states. there are 10 things that were particularly interesting, and seemed to be unique to our century-remote controls, brands, cars, politics, war, chinese manufactured products, economy, the news, bullying, the end of the world, and drug abuse. the enlightenment of the 17th and 18th century involved a particular group of french thinkers who were very popular during the middle of the 18th century. intersection of religion and politics in 17th-19th century africa. discussing the govern of queens during the 16th century, such as mary tudor, lady jane grey, mary, queen of scots, and elizabeth i, allowed prejudices to be lessened but never completely be erased.
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- throughout the late 17th century and into the early 18th century witchcraft prosecutions had been declining. a century that was full of many innovations; most importantly, these events made a tremendous impact in our lives as of today.^ a detailed account of hopkins and his fellow witchfinder john stearne can be found in malcolm gaskill's witchfinders: a seventeenth century english tragedy (harvard, 2005). three authors in particular, ralph ellison, langston hughes, and richard wright became some of the most influential and important writers of the 20th century, owing to their own history and life experiences to give life and meaning to their works.- the documentary century of self documentary written, directed and produced by adam curtis, goes to explore how freud's developed theories were used by his nephew in order to manipulate the people. a scholarly consensus only emerges in the second half of the 20th century, and historical estimates vary wildly depending on the method used. it was not until the 19th century that states began to pass laws to disenfranchise the black population. between women of the 19th century and the 21st century, they each have fashion styles, rights, and roles that show how their lives are alike and different.- witchcraft was as a capital crime in seventeenth-century new england.- when historians look into the period between the 15th century and 17th century europe, they analyze who was marginalized and how they were marginalized.- the role of females during much of the twentieth century is domestic.- the united states, in the 19th century was a place that was only meant for men, specifically white men. story of bianco alfani: reflecting the nature of 14th century florentine society.- the rise of the witchcraft craze in 17th century britain accusations of witchcraft date back to 900 ad, but killing following accusation reached a fever pitch in the late 16th century europe, and late 17th century britain.- the country as it was in the early part of the twentieth century was shaped toward regenerating and recovering from world war i, the great depression, and a lot of other socially-crippling disruptions that were forever altering the united states in a lot of different ways.
Addressing gaps in resume | Witch-hunt - Wikipedia of reform of the church in europe during 15th and 16th centuries.- the buzz on witchcraft *missing works cited* these are terms that may help you understand my essay better. the code of hammurabi (18th century bc short chronology) prescribes that.^ "we are reasonably confident today that the 'classical' doctrine of witchcraft crystallized during the middle third of the 15th century, shortly after the council of basel, primarily within a western alpine zone centred around the duchy of savoy (ostorero et al. i’m going to start this essay by talking about the amendments and what they were designed to achieve. in europe the reformation of the 16th century was to tear apart christendom into hostile factions, atheism and agnosticism had spread across europe. while the nucleus of the early modern "witch craze" would turn out to be popular superstition in the western alps, reinforced by theological rationale developed at or following the council of basel of the 1430s, what has been called "the first real witch trial in europe", the accusation of alice kyteler in 1324, occurred in 14th-century ireland, during the turmoils associated with the decline of norman control. my aim in this essay, is to explain why the renaissance started in italy during the 15 century. work of thomas aquinas in the 13th century was instrumental in developing the new theology which would give rise to the witch hunts. witch-trials emerged in the 15th century out of the practices surrounding the persecution of heresy in the medieval period, although they reached their peak during the wars of religion and on the heels of the protestant reformation. modern revival movements include wicca, which is a modern pagan, witchcraft religion, this was developed in england during the first half of the 20th century.- many theories have been formulated to explain the major events in the 20th century (two world wars and the cold war). it is the rock revolution and swing, the music of the 20th century has made society what it is today. women of the 19th century, and even still at the turn of the century, were suffering from postpartum depression, and they were misdiagnosed because postpartum, like almost any woman's illness, was treated as illness of the womb.- teaching in the 21st century has come about due to the realisation that the current education system has fallen behind the modern world, become outdated and ineffectual.
Business plan regional economics target population | Free 15th century Essays and Papers matter of style: fashion in 17th century france and new france. this paper compares the fashions of women in 17th century france to those of women living in new france.- 21st century classrooms and learners defining a 21st century classroom the term, 21st century classroom, might at first thought, seem easy to define; however, as one looks deeper, the simplicity of a definition seems at best, a challenge. religious studies and theology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. paradoxically, it was precisely these two institutions that were beginning to be criticized and indeed threatened by developments in europe towards the outset of the eighteenth century. oppression of women in the 19th century as seen in “the yellow wallpaper,” by charlotte perkins gilman. 6th century ad getica of jordanes records a persecution and expulsion of witches among the goths in a mythical account of the origin of the huns. organized witchcraft trials continued to be held throughout europe and even the english colonies in north america until the late seventeenth century, they were most often civil affairs. the late 14th century, a number of "witch hunters" began to publish books on the topic, including nicholas eymeric, the inquisitor in aragon and avignon, who published the directorium inquisitorum in 1376.- herman melville’s utilization of bartleby the scrivener: the story of wall street as a means of criticizing capitalism and its crimes against humanity herman melville's "bartleby, the scrivener: a story of wall street" scrutinizes the alienation of labor, the social ideologies and the dehumanizing consequences of the american capitalist society in the 19th century. the prussian kulturkampf, starting from the mid-19th century, the roman catholic church was accused of being sole originator of witch hunts, the number of victims was significantly overstated with up to 9 million. at the turn of the century, however, those free ideals morphed into strict guidelines.- women authors of the 19th century some of the most influential women authors of all time lived in the 19th century. until the fifteenth century, witchcraft was not considered an "evil" practice. this earth-based, nature oriented belief has been established since the thirteenth century, but it is not until recently that it has began to spread across the world.
Cara buat resume minta kerja | Witch trials in the early modern period - Wikipedia - the earl of beaconsfield, benjamin disraeli was one of the great political minds of the nineteenth century. the judaean second temple period, rabbi simeon ben shetach in the 1st century bc is reported to have sentenced to death eighty women who had been charged with witchcraft on a single day in ashkelon. it became one of the greatest accomplishments of science during the 19th century.- europe will not run the 21st century because of a combination of economic, institutional, and cultural factors.- work conditions and child labor in the nineteenth century at the beginning of the 1800’s most laborers worked at home. the third, the 15th amendment, granted suffrage regardless of color, race, or previous position of servitude. the 14th and 15th centuries, the concept of the witch in christendom underwent a relatively radical change. the concept of magic versus religion, specifically witchcraft, became the prominent collective-obsessional-behavior problem around the beginning of the 15th century.^ "by the end of the 15th century, scattered trials for witchcraft by both secular and ecclesiastical courts occurred in many places from the pyrenees, where the spanish inquisition had become involved, to the north sea. manuals of the roman catholic inquisition remained highly skeptical of witch accusations, although there was sometimes an overlap between accusations of heresy and of witchcraft, particularly when, in the 13th century, the newly formed inquisition was commissioned to deal with the cathars of southern france, whose teachings were charged with containing an admixture of witchcraft and magic.” the story of bianco alfani reflected the nature of 14th century florentine society where, as alfani remarked, the election to public office could make or destroy a person. the witch hunts declined in the early 18th century, culminating with the british witchcraft act of 1735, but sporadic witch-trials during the second half of the 18th century, the last known dating to 1782 (though a prosecution was commenced in tennessee as recently as 1833). in the 17th century, people believed that witchcraft was practiced by women who had rejected god and made a pact with evil spirits.- while there are many things that make the 21st century a notable period of time, there are also flaws that are impossible to understand why it happens. these doctrinal shifts were completed in the mid 15th century, specifically in the wake of the council of basel and centered on the duchy of savoy in the western alps, leading to an early series of witch trials by both secular and ecclesiastical courts in the second half of the 15th century.